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What is Fascism

Written by sudarshangk

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The term, ‘Fascism’, is derived from the word ‘fasces’ which literally means a bundle of rods tightly wound around an axe. In this kind of political setup, the power lies in the hands of one dominant party that is constituted by the ‘superior race’. This is an ideology wherein the other sections of the society or the other ethnic groups have absolutely no control over the economic and political setup. In simple words, Fascism is an idea that emphasizes on the superiority of one particular race and oppresses the other ideologies which try to questions its supremacy.


The idea of fascism became more significant during the period of World War 1. Worth mentioning would be the name of the fascist leader of Italy, Benito Mussolini, who played an important role in the Second World War and formed an alliance with the Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler. The Fascist Party was founded by Mussolini after the First World War. As a matter of fact, Benito Mussolini was expelled from the Socialist party in the year 1915 for his revolutionary thinking. Fascism had reached its pinnacle in Italy and after Mussolini came into power, all the other political powers were banned. Any movement against the government was suppressed by force and there was Police surveillance to ensure that the supreme power of the Fascist party was upheld.

One would not be wrong in terming that fascism was given a new dimension by Benito Mussolini. The fascist rule favored the upper class and they dealt very brutally with the lower state of the society and ethnic groups that formed the minority in the society. Italy’s association with Germany led to the fall of fascism with defeat of the alliance in the Second World War. Benito Mussolini was held responsible for the pathetic economic situation of Italy and hanged to death in 1945.

The other countries that embraced fascism were Germany, Spain, Hungary and Austria. The countries that had Fascist rulers till the recent times were Chile and Cuba. Chile was ruled by Augusto Pinochet till 1981 and Fidel Castro remained in power in Cuba till 2008. However, in the present day scenario, with the whole world showing inclination towards democracy, the idea of fascism is losing its significance. Fascist rulers have been overthrown by revolution or by uprising by the lower classes.

One would be surprised to know that most of the fascist rulers of the world had a military background and took price in the titles that they assumed. The Military coup that took place in Pakistan in the recent times, resulting in General Parvez Musharaff coming to power can be quoted as one of the most recent example for fascist ideologies.

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